Curriculum Overview

At Eltham North we take great pride in our curriculum. Our Learning and Teaching Programs are designed to encourage and promote a love of life long learning. The new Victorian Curriculum forms the basis of the school's comprehensive and integrated curriculum programs. Whilst a wide variety of additional resources materials and texts are used by teachers, the school's curriculum structure and focus is based on the these new documents.

The Victorian Curriculum replaced the AusVELS as the basis for curriculum planning and development in Victorian schools and as such, it is our core resource in teaching and curriculum at Eltham North Primary School.

The Victorian Curriculum provides a stable foundation for whole schooling curriculum and assessment planning. It incorporates the Australian Curriculum and reflects Victorian standards and priorities.  The curriculum includes a strong focus on the foundational skills of literacy and numeracy and on personal and social skills, thinking skills and new areas of learning such as computational thinking.  The Victorian Curriculum gives students the skills they need for work and life: literacy, numeracy, scientific knowledge and skills, resilience, respectful relationships, the use of digital technologies and the capacity for critical and creative thinking and expression. 


Key features of the new Victorian Curriculum include the following elements.

* Structured as a learning continuum, that is, developmental levels that enable teachers to identify current levels of achievement and readiness to learn and then plan to enable students to achieve expected levels.

* Incorporates all key content in the Australian Curriculum.

* Capabilities represented as sets of knowledge and skills that are distinct from any single learning area but that students develop and apply across the curriculum.

* Cross-curriculum priorities (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and culture, Asia and Australian's engagement with Aisa and Sustainability) are embedded and included in the learning areas and capabilities, not represented as additional or separate components of the curriculum.

* Four rather than seven capabilities are included in the Victorian curriculum. the additional three capabilities in the Australian Curriculum are Literacy, Numeracy and ICT. Teachers will develop students' learning of Literacy, Numeracy and ICT across the curriculum.  In Victorian Curriculum these capabilities are incorporated in the learning areas and do not require separate treatment.


Specific features that are new to the Victorian Curriculum include the following:

* reference to phonics and phonemic awareness have been strengthened in the English curriculum.

* The Digital Technologies curriculum includes new learning for F-10 students, including computational thinking, developing and evaluating digital solutions and data collection, representation and interpretation. Learning about coding is included in both Digital technologies and Mathematics curriculum.

* Reference to respectful relationships and safety in the home have been strengthened and made more explicit.

* The Victorian Curriculum includes, for the first time, Learning about World Views and religions.  While the Australian Curriculum ( and the VELS formerly) make numerous connections to religion (for example, 'Australia is a secular and multi-faith society', or the role religion played in colonial expansion, or the role of religion in global conflicts), those curricula didn't specify what students should learn about world views and religions.  Such content has now been developed, in consultation with key religious and secular stakeholders.


** Detailed description of the Victorian Curriculum

* Preamble

The Victorian Curriculum Foundation–10 (F–10) sets out what every student should learn during their first eleven years of schooling. The curriculum is the common set of knowledge and skills required by students for life-long learning, social development and active and informed citizenship.

The Victorian Curriculum F–10 incorporates the Australian Curriculum and reflects Victorian priorities and standards.  It represents the curriculum as a continuum of learning and the structural design and it is a single, coherent and comprehensive set of content descriptions and associated achievement standards enabling teachers to plan, monitor, assess and report on the learning achievement of every student.

* Curriculum Design

The Victorian Curriculum F–10 includes eight learning areas and four capabilities. The learning areas of the Arts, Humanities and Technologies include distinct disciplines. The capabilities represent sets of knowledge and skills that are developed and applied across the curriculum

* Learning Capabilities and Areas

(URL link): Learning areas and Capabilities The Victorian Curriculum F–10 includes both knowledge and skills. These are defined by learning areas and capabilities. This curriculum design assumes that knowledge and skills are transferable across the curriculum and therefore are not duplicated. For example, where skills and knowledge such as asking questions, evaluating evidence and drawing conclusions are defined in Critical and Creative Thinking, these are not duplicated in other learning areas such as History or Health and Physical Education. It is expected that the skills and knowledge defined in the capabilities will be developed, practiced, deployed and demonstrated by students in and through their learning across the curriculum.

The Victorian Curriculum is based on eight learning areas and four capabilities.

The Victorian Curriculum is based on eight learning areas and four capabilities.

Learning areas

The Victorian Curriculum F–10 learning areas are a clear and deliberate reaffirmation of the importance of a discipline-based approach to learning, where learning areas are regarded as both enduring and dynamic.

Their enduring nature rests in their different epistemologies, or ways of understanding, and the associated skills they provide for students. Each of the learning areas provides and is defined by a unique way of seeing, understanding and engaging with the world. For the Arts, the Humanities and the Technologies, students engage in and through disciplines, which provide discrete content descriptions and achievement standards.

By 2017 Eltham North Primary will have introduced all learning area and capabilities.


The Victorian Curriculum F–10 includes capabilities, which are a set of discrete knowledge and skills that can and should be taught explicitly in and through the learning areas, but are not fully defined by any of the learning areas or disciplines. A key distinction between the Australian Curriculum F–10 and the Victorian Curriculum F–10  is the provision of content descriptions and achievement standards in the four capabilities.

The Australian Curriculum F–10 includes three additional general capabilities:

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and Communication Technologies (ICT).

The Victorian Curriculum F–10 design does not include these three general capabilities as separate learning areas or capabilities with discrete knowledge and skills.

Given the inclusion of a Literacy strand in English, and the proficiencies of understanding, fluency, problem solving, and reasoning in Mathematics, it is unnecessary to define Literacy and Numeracy as a distinct curriculum. The learning of the skills and knowledge defined by the ICT general capability are now embedded in student learning across the curriculum.

There is considerable research that identifies the importance of the teaching of literacy and numeracy and ICT in the context of the different curriculum areas. It is both appropriate and necessary that the literacy, numeracy and ICT requirements be embedded in the curriculum areas.


While much of the explicit teaching of literacy occurs in the English learning area, it is strengthened, made specific and extended in other learning areas as students engage in a range of learning activities with significant literacy demands.


In the Victorian Curriculum F–10, the knowledge and skills that underpin numeracy are explicitly taught in the Mathematics strands Number and Algebra, Measurement and Geometry and Statistics and Probability and reinforced and further exemplified in and across other curriculum areas. Through this process, students recognise that mathematics is widely used both in and outside school and learn to apply mathematical knowledge and skills in a wide range of familiar and unfamiliar situations.

Information and Communication Technologies

In the Victorian Curriculum F–10, the ICT general capability skills are either specifically embedded in the content descriptions of Mathematics, Media Arts, Geography, English and Digital Technologies or schools have the flexibility to determine how these skills will be used in their teaching and learning programs for other curriculum areas. 

The Literacy, Numeracy and ICT general capabilities from the Australian Curriculum F–10 are therefore represented in the Victorian Curriculum F–10 as embedded in each curriculum area and are not discrete areas against which teachers should report student progress.

* Standards and levels

(URL link):  Standards and levels  The Victorian Curriculum F–10 is structured as a continuum across levels of learning achievement not years of schooling. This enables the development of targeted learning programs for all students, where the curriculum is used to plan in relation to the actual learning level of each student rather than their assumed level of learning based on age.

Each curriculum area includes content descriptions explaining what is to be taught and achievement standards describing what students are able to understand and do. The achievement standards are provided in 11 levels for English and Mathematics or in five or six bands for all the other learning areas and capabilities.

Further information on the placement of the achievement standards is available:

The achievement standards reflect the emphasis within the broad stages of schooling, these being:

  • Foundation stage (Years F–2)

The focus is on the five curriculum areas of English, Mathematics, The Arts, Health and Physical Education, and Personal and Social capability. These areas all have a standard at Foundation. In the early years of schooling, schools may choose to structure teaching and learning programs around the five outcomes of the Victorian Early Years Learning and Development Framework (VEYLDF). Further information on VEYLDF is available here.

  • Breadth stage (Years 3–8)

Students have the opportunity to fully engage with all learning areas and capabilities, with a focus on English, Mathematics, Science.

* Cross-curriculum Priorities

(URL link):  Cross-curriculum Priorities  Learning about the cross-curriculum priorities of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures, Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia, and Sustainability is embedded in the learning areas of the Victorian Curriculum F–10.

Learning about Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures

The Victorian Curriculum F–10 includes opportunities for students to learn about Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures. The knowledge and skills that students are expected to develop about Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders histories and cultures has a particular and enduring importance and assists students to understand the uniqueness of these cultures and the wisdom and knowledge embedded in them.

A summary of the curriculum content in the Victorian Curriculum F–10 directly related to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and culture is available here:

* Diversity of Learners

(URL link):  Diversity of Learners  The Victorian Curriculum F–10 has been developed to ensure that curriculum content and achievement standards enable continuous learning for all student, including:

  • Students with disabilities
  • English as an additional language
  • Gifted and talented students

Students with disabilities

The objectives of the Victorian Curriculum are the same for all students. The curriculum offers flexibility for teachers to tailor their teaching in ways that provide rigorous, relevant and engaging learning and assessment opportunities for students with disabilities.

Most students with disabilities can engage with the curriculum provided the necessary adjustments are made to the complexity of the curriculum content and to the means through which students demonstrate their knowledge, skills and understanding.

For some learners, making adjustments to instructional processes and to assessment strategies enables students to achieve educational standards commensurate with their peers.

For other students, teachers will need to make appropriate adjustments to the complexity of the curriculum content, focusing instruction on content different to that taught to others in their age group. It follows that adjustments will also need to be made to how the student’s progress is monitored, assessed and reported.

For a small percentage of students with disabilities, their learning will be well below the Victorian Curriculum Foundation standards. Most of these students have a significant intellectual disability. ‘Towards Foundation Level Victorian Curriculum’ provides this cohort of students with access to curriculum content and standards that enable students to move toward the learning described at Foundation level.

The ‘Towards Foundation Level Victorian Curriculum’ is integrated directly into the curriculum and is referred to as ‘Levels A to D’.  

Levels A to D focus on progressing students from a pre-intentional to intentional engagement in learning. They support students to develop their independence as they explore, participate and engage in the world around them. As students progress through these levels, the amount of support decreases as they proceed towards becoming independent learners.

‘Levels A to D’ are not associated with any set age or year level that links chronological age to cognitive progress. Rather the learning descriptions for levels A to D are structured by the following continuum:

Level A: Beginning to Explore

At this level students experience a range of learning activities that will assist them to attend to and explore the world around them with as much independence as possible. Experiences are designed to move students from a pre-intentional level of responding to a level where the response indicates beginning intention. Students need high levels of coactive support and focused attention from the teacher to help them initiate and refine their responses. Students demonstrate some awareness and recognition of familiar people and routine activities.

Level B: Active Exploration

Students at this level become less reliant on high levels of coactive support and become more reliant on verbal prompts and gestures to facilitate their learning. They begin to explore their world independently and engage in simple cause-and-effect play activities. Students are able to focus on structured learning activities for short periods of time. They respond to familiar people and events and begin to use ‘yes/no’ responses.

Level C: Intentional Participation

Students at this level are less dependent on coactive support and respond more consistently to prompts and simple clear directions from the teacher to support them in their learning. They are displaying the first signs of independence and becoming more peer focused. Students participate in structured learning activities with others and they begin to use pictures, photos and objects to communicate personal interests and experiences. They start to use and link some familiar words and images to construct a meaningful communication.

Level D: Building Independence

With teacher support and curriculum scaffolding, students at this level participate cooperatively in group learning activities. They express their feelings, needs and choices in increasingly appropriate ways and combine and sequence key words and images to communicate personal interests and to recount significant experiences. They indicate beginning understanding of social rules and expectations and are beginning to reflect on their own behaviour.

For more advice in regard to curriculum provision and students with disabilities, please see the Students with Disabilities Guidelines (PDF). Additional advice and support is also available from the DET Abilities Based Learning and Education Support (ABLES) website.

English as an additional language

Many students in Australian schools are learners of English as an additional language (EAL). Learners of EAL are students whose first language is a language other than Standard Australian English and who require additional support to assist them to develop English language proficiency. While many EAL learners do well in school, a significant group of these learners leave school without achieving their potential.

EAL learners come from diverse backgrounds and may include:

children whose first language is a language other than English

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students whose first language is an Indigenous language, including traditional languages, creoles and related varieties, or Aboriginal English.

EAL learners enter school at different ages and at different stages of English language learning and have various educational backgrounds in their first languages. For some, school is the only place they use English.

The aims of the Victorian Curriculum F–10: English are ultimately the same for all students. However, EAL learners are simultaneously learning a new language and the knowledge, understanding and skills of the English curriculum through that new language. They require additional time and support, along with informed teaching that explicitly addresses their language needs, and assessments that take into account their developing language proficiency.

A national EAL document is being produced that will support the F–10 curriculum. It will provide a description of how language proficiency develops, and will be a valuable reference for all teachers. It will allow English teachers to identify the language levels of the EAL learners in their classrooms and to address their specific learning requirements when teaching, ensuring equity of access to the English learning area for all.

In the interim, advice about how to use the curriculum with EAL learners is available here.

Gifted and talented students

The Victorian Curriculum F–10 structure enables the curriculum to be used to appropriately target the learning level of each individual student in a class. This includes gifted and talented students who are able to work well above the nominally age expected level of achievement.


* Navigation and Terminology

(URL link):  Navigation and Terminology


Each learning area and capability includes an Introduction and the Curriculum.

The introduction includes material that will assist teachers to understand the specific purpose and features of the curriculum, and to locate additional documentation.

The curriculum sets out the learning continuum and offers a range of viewing options. This is done by selecting a 'view mode' or a level/band within the curriculum area.

Further information about how to navigate the Victorian Curriculum F–10 website and additional assistance to understand the functionality of this digital publication is available.

Moving from AusVELS to the Victorian Curriculum in 2016 encompasses new terminology.


Achievement standards: Statements that describe what students are typically able to understand and do, and are the basis for reporting student achievement.

Content descriptions: Specific and discrete information identifying what teachers are expected to teach and students are expected to learn.

Elaborations: Non-mandated, advisory examples that provide guidance on how the curriculum may be transformed into a classroom activity or learning opportunity.

Level/Band descriptions: Statements that provide an overview to the content descriptions and achievement standard within the level or band.

Strands: Key organising elements within each curriculum area.

Sub-strands: Supplementary organising elements within some curriculum areas.

* About the Arts

In the Victorian Curriculum F–10, the Arts includes Dance, Drama, Media Arts, Music, Visual Arts and Visual Communication Design.

The Arts enable students to develop their creative and expressive capacities by learning about the different practices, disciplines and traditions that have shaped the expression of culture locally, nationally and globally. Students are both artist and audience in the Arts. They make and respond and learn to appreciate the specific ways this occurs in different disciplines.

The Arts present ideas that are dynamic and rich in tradition. Through engaging in The Arts students are entertained, challenged and provoked to respond to questions and assumptions about individual and community identity, taking into account different histories and cultures. The Arts contributes to the development of confident and creative individuals and enriches Australian society. Students express, represent and communicate ideas in contemporary, traditional and emerging arts forms. In Dance, Drama and Music students explore the performing arts whilst in Media Arts, Visual Arts and Visual Communication Design students explore the world of visual representation and expression.

The significant contributions of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples to Australia’s arts heritage and contemporary arts practices are explored across the Arts, and students are encouraged to respect and value these unique and evolving traditions.

* Critical and Creative Thinking


Responding effectively to environmental, social and economic challenges requires young people to be creative, innovative, enterprising and adaptable, with the motivation, confidence and skills to use critical and creative thinking purposefully. Explicit attention to and application of thinking skills enables students to develop an increasingly sophisticated understanding of the processes they can employ whenever they encounter both the familiar and unfamiliar, to break ineffective habits and build on successful ones, building a capacity to manage their thinking.

Thinking that is productive, purposeful and intentional is at the centre of effective learning and the creation of new knowledge, with the progressive development of knowledge about thinking and the practice of using thinking strategies fostering students’ motivation for, and management of, their own learning.

Critical and creative thinking are strongly linked. Students require explicit support to develop the breadth and depth of their thinking and to take intellectual risks. This attention to thinking helps students to build self-awareness and their capacities for reflection. Developing critical and creative thinking capability is an essential element of developing successful, confident and innovative members of the community.


Critical and creative thinking capability aims to ensure that students develop:

understanding of thinking processes and an ability to manage and apply these intentionally

skills and learning dispositions that support logical, strategic, flexible and adventurous thinking

confidence in evaluating thinking and thinking processes across a range of familiar and unfamiliar contexts.

* English


The study of English is central to the learning and development of all young Australians. It helps create confident communicators, imaginative thinkers and informed citizens. It is through the study of English that individuals learn to analyse, understand, communicate and build relationships with others and with the world around them. The study of English helps young people develop the knowledge and skills needed for education, training and the workplace. It helps them become ethical, thoughtful, informed and active members of society and plays an important part in developing the understanding, attitudes and capabilities of those who will take responsibility for Australia’s future.

Although Australia is a linguistically and culturally diverse country, participation in many aspects of Australian life depends on effective communication in Standard Australian English. In addition, proficiency in English is invaluable globally. The English curriculum contributes both to nation-building and to internationalisation, including Australia’s links to Asia.

English also helps students to engage imaginatively and critically with literature to expand the scope of their experience. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples have contributed to Australian society and to its contemporary literature and literary heritage through their distinctive ways of representing and communicating knowledge, traditions and experience. 


The English curriculum aims to ensure that students:

learn to listen to, read, view, speak, write, create and reflect on increasingly complex and sophisticated spoken, written and multimodal texts across a growing range of contexts with accuracy, fluency and purpose

appreciate, enjoy and use the English language in all its variations and develop a sense of its richness and power to evoke feelings, convey information, form ideas, facilitate interaction with others, entertain, persuade and argue

understand how Standard Australian English works in its spoken and written forms and in combination with non-linguistic forms of communication to create meaning

develop interest and skills in inquiring into the aesthetic aspects of texts, and develop an informed appreciation of literature.

* Ethical Capability


The Ethical Capability curriculum explores what it means for both an individual and society to live well. Students examine what we ought to do, how we ought to live, what kind of society we should have and what kind of person one should be. These questions concern individuals alone and relationships between people, and between people and environmental, social and economic systems. They involve contested and complex concepts.

This exploration strengthens students’ capacity to make decisions informed by an understanding of the values, principles, concepts and ideas that underpin different assumptions, and an ability to analyse and evaluate these. 

Building capability in ethical understanding supports the development of informed citizenship at local, regional and global levels.


The Ethical Capability curriculum aims to develop knowledge, understandings and skills to enable students to:

Analyse and evaluate ethical issues, recognising areas of contestability

Identify the bases of ethical principles and ethical reasoning

Engage with the challenges of managing ethical decision making and action for individuals and groups

Cultivate open-mindedness and reasonableness.

* Health and Physical Education


Health and Physical Education focuses on students enhancing their own and others’ health, safety, well-being and physical activity participation in varied and changing contexts. Research in fields such as sociology, physiology, nutrition, bio-mechanics and psychology informs what we understand about healthy, safe and active choices. Health and Physical Education offers students an experiential curriculum that is contemporary, relevant, challenging, enjoyable and physically active.

In Health and Physical Education, students develop the knowledge, understanding and skills to strengthen their sense of self, and build and manage satisfying relationships. The curriculum helps them to be resilient, and to make decisions and take actions to promote their health, safety and physical activity participation. As students mature, they develop and use critical inquiry skills to research and analyse the knowledge of the field and to understand the influences on their own and others’ health, safety and wellbeing. They also learn to use resources for the benefit of themselves and for the communities with which they identify and to which they belong.

Integral to Health and Physical Education is the acquisition of movement skills, concepts and strategies to enable students to confidently, competently and creatively participate in a range of physical activities. As a foundation for lifelong physical activity participation and enhanced performance, students develop proficiency in movement skills, physical activities and movement concepts and acquire an understanding of the science behind how the body moves. In doing so, they develop an appreciation of the significance of physical activity, outdoor recreation and sport both in Australian society and globally. 

Movement is a powerful medium for learning, through which students can acquire, practise and refine personal, behavioural, social and cognitive skills. The Health and Physical Education curriculum addresses how contextual factors influence the health, safety, wellbeing, and physical activity patterns of individuals, groups and communities. It provides opportunities for students to develop skills, self-efficacy and dispositions to advocate for, and positively influence, their own and others’ health and wellbeing.

Healthy, active living includes promoting physical fitness, healthy body weight, psychological wellbeing, cognitive capabilities and learning. A healthy, active population improves productivity and personal satisfaction, promotes pro-social behaviour and reduces the occurrence of chronic disease. Health and Physical Education teaches students how to enhance their health, safety and wellbeing and contribute to building healthy, safe and active communities.

Therefore, given these aspirations, Health and Physical Education has been shaped by five interrelated propositions that are informed by a strong and diverse research base for a futures-oriented curriculum:

Focus on educative purposes

Although the curriculum may contribute to a range of goals that sit beyond its educative purposes, the priority for the Health and Physical Education curriculum is to provide ongoing, developmentally appropriate and explicit learning about health and movement. The prime responsibility of the Health and Physical Education curriculum is to describe the progression and development of the disciplinary knowledge, understanding and skills underpinning Health and Physical Education and how students will make meaning of and apply them in contemporary health and movement contexts.

The Health and Physical Education curriculum draws on its multidisciplinary evidence base to ensure that students are provided with learning opportunities to practise, create, apply and evaluate the knowledge, understanding and skills of the learning area.

Take a strengths-based approach

The Health and Physical Education curriculum is informed by a strengths-based approach. Rather than focusing only on potential health risks or a deficit-based model of health, the curriculum has a stronger focus on supporting students to develop the knowledge, understanding and skills they require to make healthy, safe and active choices that will enhance their own and others’ health and wellbeing.

This approach affirms that all students and their communities have particular strengths and resources that can be nurtured to improve their own and others' health, wellbeing, movement competence and participation in physical activity. The curriculum recognises that students have varying levels of access to personal and community resources depending on a variety of contextual factors that will impact on their decisions and behaviours.

Value movement

Health and Physical Education is the key learning area in the curriculum that focuses explicitly on developing movement skills and concepts students require to participate in physical activities with competence and confidence. The knowledge, understanding, skills and dispositions students develop through movement in Health and Physical Education encourage ongoing participation across their lifespan and in turn lead to positive health outcomes. Movement competence and confidence is seen as an important personal and community asset to be developed, refined and valued.

Health and Physical Education promotes an appreciation of how movement in all its forms is central to daily life — from meeting functional requirements and providing opportunities for active living to acknowledging participation in physical activity and sport as significant cultural and social practices. The study of movement has a broad and established scientific, social, cultural and historical knowledge base, informing our understanding of how and why we move and how we can improve physical performance.

The study of movement also provides challenges and opportunities for students to enhance a range of personal and social skills and behaviours that contribute to health and wellbeing.

Develop health literacy

Health literacy can be understood as an individual’s ability to gain access to, understand and use health information and services in ways that promote and maintain health and wellbeing. The Health and Physical Education curriculum focuses on developing knowledge, understanding and skills related to the three dimensions of health literacy:

  • functional dimension — including researching and applying information relating to knowledge and services in order to respond to a health-related question
  • interactive dimension — including more advanced knowledge, understanding and skills to actively and independently engage with a health issue and to apply new information to changing circumstances
  • critical dimension — including accessing and critically analysing health information from a variety of sources which might include scientific information, health brochures or messages in the media, in order to take action to promote personal health and wellbeing or that of others.

Consistent with a strengths-based approach, health literacy is a personal and community asset to be developed, evaluated, enriched and communicated.

Include a critical inquiry approach

The Health and Physical Education curriculum engages students in critical inquiry processes that assist students to research, analyse, apply and appraise knowledge in health and movement fields. In doing so, students will critically analyse and critically evaluate contextual factors that influence decision making, behaviours and actions, and explore inclusiveness, power inequalities, taken-for-granted assumptions, diversity and social justice.

The Health and Physical Education curriculum recognises that values, behaviours, priorities and actions related to health and physical activity reflect varying contextual factors which influence the ways people live. The curriculum develops an understanding that the meanings and interests individuals and social groups have in relation to health practices and physical activity participation are diverse and therefore require different approaches and strategies.


Health and Physical Education aims to develop the knowledge, understanding and skills to enable students to:

  • access, evaluate and synthesise information to take positive action to protect, enhance and advocate for their own and others’ health, wellbeing, safety and physical activity participation across their lifespan
  • develop and use personal, behavioural, social and cognitive skills and strategies to promote a sense of personal identity and wellbeing and to build and manage respectful relationships
  • acquire, apply and evaluate movement skills, concepts and strategies to respond confidently, competently and creatively in a variety of physical activity contexts and settings
  • engage in and enjoy regular movement-based learning experiences and understand and appreciate their significance to personal, social, cultural, environmental and health practices and outcomes
  • analyse how varied and changing personal and contextual factors shape understanding of, and opportunities for, health and physical activity locally, regionally and globally.

 * The Humanities

About the Humanities

In the Victorian Curriculum F–10, the Humanities includes Civics and Citizenship, Economics and Business, Geography and History.

The Humanities provide a framework for students to examine the complex processes that have shaped the modern world and to investigate responses to different challenges including people’s interconnections with the environment.

In Civics and Citizenship and Economics and Business, students explore the systems that shape society, with a specific focus on legal and economic systems. Students learn about Australia’s role in global systems, and are encouraged to appreciate democratic principles and to contribute as active, informed and responsible citizens.

In History and Geography, students explore the processes that have shaped and which continue to shape different societies and cultures, to appreciate the common humanity shared across time and distance, and to evaluate the ways in which humans have faced and continue to face different challenges.

Learning about world views and religions

The Victorian Curriculum F–10 includes multiple opportunities for students to learn about world views and religions. This enables students to be more informed and engaged at both a local and global level, understanding the perspectives of diverse local communities and being informed about the beliefs and practices of diverse traditions. To support this learning an outline of the key premises of the world’s major religions, and a secular world view is available here:

Learning about world views and religions (PDF)

* Intercultural Capability


Intercultural interactions have become a part of everyday life in our increasingly multicultural and globalised world. Developing intercultural knowledge, skills and understandings is an essential part of living with others in the diverse world of the twenty-first century. The Intercultural capability curriculum assists young people to become responsible local and global citizens, equipped for living and working together in an interconnected world.

Intercultural capability enables students to learn to value their own cultures, languages and beliefs, and those of others. Students learn about diverse cultures in ways that recognise commonalities and differences, create connections with others and cultivate mutual respect.

The Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians recognises the fundamental role that education plays in building a society that is ‘cohesive and culturally diverse, and that values Australia’s Indigenous cultures’. The Intercultural capability curriculum addresses this role, developing students who are active and informed citizens with an appreciation of Australia’s social, cultural, linguistic and religious diversity, and the ability to relate to and communicate across cultures at local, regional and global levels.


Intercultural capability aims to develop knowledge, understandings and skills to enable students to:

  • demonstrate an awareness of and respect for cultural diversity within the community
  • reflect on how intercultural experiences influence attitudes, values and beliefs
  • recognise the importance of acceptance and appreciation of cultural diversity for a cohesive community.

* Languages

Learning languages in addition to English extends student’s literacy repertoires and their capacity to communicate. It strengthens student’s understanding of the nature of language, culture, and the processes of communication.

Language categories

The languages included in the Victorian Curriculum F–10 are grouped into six categories – see table below.

Some language specific curriculums are still being finalised and will be progressively incorporated into the Victorian Curriculum. These can be accessed in their current format (where available) from the Australian Curriculum website.

The Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority has developed a curriculum for Roman and Non-Roman Alphabet languages which will allow any world language to be offered by a Victorian school. 

* Mathematics


Mathematics provides students with access to important mathematical ideas, knowledge and skills that they will draw on in their personal and work lives. The curriculum also provides students, as life-long learners, with the basis on which further study and research in mathematics and applications in many other fields are built.

Mathematical ideas have evolved across societies and cultures over thousands of years, and are constantly developing. Digital technologies are facilitating this expansion of ideas and provide new tools for mathematical exploration and invention. While the usefulness of mathematics for modelling and problem solving is well known, mathematics also has a fundamental role in both enabling and sustaining cultural, social, economic and technological advances and empowering individuals to become critical citizens.

Number, measurement and geometry, statistics and probability are common aspects of most people’s mathematical experience in everyday personal, study and work situations. Equally important are the essential roles that algebra, functions and relations, logic, mathematical structure and working mathematically play in people’s understanding of the natural and human worlds, and the interaction between them.

The Mathematics curriculum focuses on developing increasingly sophisticated and refined mathematical understanding, fluency, reasoning, modelling and problem-solving. These capabilities enable students to respond to familiar and unfamiliar situations by employing mathematics to make informed decisions and solve problems efficiently.

The curriculum ensures that the links between the various components of mathematics, as well as the relationship between mathematics and other disciplines, are made clear. Mathematics is composed of multiple but interrelated and interdependent concepts and structures which students apply beyond the mathematics classroom. For example, in Science, understanding sources of error and their impact on the confidence of conclusions is vital; in Geography, interpretation of data underpins the study of human populations and their physical environments; in History, students need to be able to imagine timelines and time frames to reconcile related events; and in English, deriving quantitative, logical and spatial information is an important aspect of making meaning of texts.


The Mathematics curriculum aims to ensure that students:

  • develop useful mathematical and numeracy skills for everyday life, work and as active and critical citizens in a technological world
  • see connections and apply mathematical concepts, skills and processes to pose and solve problems in mathematics and in other disciplines and contexts
  • acquire specialist knowledge and skills in mathematics that provide for further study in the discipline
  • appreciate mathematics as a discipline – its history, ideas, problems and applications, aesthetics and philosophy.

* Personal and Social Capability


The Personal and Social Capability is essential in enabling students to understand themselves and others, and manage their relationships, lives, work and learning more effectively. The capability involves students learning to recognise and regulate emotions, develop empathy for others and understand relationships, establish and build a framework for positive relationships, work effectively in teams and develop leadership skills, and handle challenging situations constructively.

The Personal and Social Capability supports students in becoming creative and confident individuals with a sense of self-worth, self-awareness and personal identity that enables them to manage their emotional, mental, spiritual and physical wellbeing, with a sense of hope and optimism about their lives and the future. On a social level, it helps students to form and maintain healthy relationships and prepares them for their potential life roles as family, community and workforce members.

The Personal and Social Capability encompasses students' personal/emotional and social/relational dispositions, intelligences, and sensibilities. Although it is named ‘Personal and Social Capability’, the words ‘personal/emotional’ and ‘social/relational’ are used interchangeably throughout the literature and within educational organisations. The term ‘Social and Emotional Learning’ is also often used, as is the SEL acronym.

The Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL) evidence-based approach and definitions of Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) are the best known and most highly respected in the world today, and provide an excellent framework for integrating the academic, emotional and social dimensions of learning.


The Personal and Social Capability curriculum aims to develop knowledge, understandings and skills to enable students to:

  • recognise, understand and evaluate the expression of emotions
  • demonstrate an awareness of their personal qualities and the factors that contribute to resilience
  • develop empathy for and understanding of others and recognise the importance of supporting diversity for a cohesive community
  • understand how relationships are developed and use interpersonal skills to establish and maintain respectful relationships
  • work effectively in teams and develop strategies to manage challenging situations constructively.

* Science


Science provides an empirical way of answering interesting and important questions about the biological, physical and technological world. Science is a dynamic, collaborative and creative human endeavour arising from our desire to make sense of our world by exploring the unknown, investigating universal mysteries, making predictions and solving problems. Science knowledge is contestable and is revised, refined and extended as new evidence arises.

The Science curriculum provides opportunities for students to develop an understanding of important scientific concepts and processes, the practices used to develop scientific knowledge, the contribution of science to our culture and society, and its applications in our lives. The curriculum supports students to develop the scientific knowledge, understandings and skills to make informed decisions about local, national and global issues and to participate, if they so wish, in science-related careers.

In addition to its practical applications, learning science is a valuable pursuit in its own right. Students can experience the joy of scientific discovery and nurture their natural curiosity about the world around them. In doing this, they develop critical and creative thinking skills and challenge themselves to identify questions, apply new knowledge, explain science phenomena and draw evidence-based conclusions using scientific methods. The wider benefits of this 'scientific literacy' are well established, including giving students the capability to investigate the world around them and the way it has changed and changes as a result of human activity.


The Science curriculum aims to ensure that students develop:

  • an interest in science as a means of expanding their curiosity and willingness to explore, ask questions about and speculate on the changing world in which they live
  • an understanding of the vision that science provides of the nature of living things, of the Earth and its place in the cosmos, and of the physical and chemical processes that explain the behaviour of all material things
  • an understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry and the ability to use a range of scientific inquiry methods, including questioning, planning and conducting experiments and investigations based on ethical principles, collecting and analysing data, evaluating results, and drawing critical, evidence-based conclusions
  • an ability to communicate scientific understanding and findings to a range of audiences, to justify ideas on the basis of evidence, and to evaluate and debate scientific arguments and claims
  • an ability to solve problems and make informed, evidence-based decisions about current and future applications of science while taking into account ethical and social implications of decisions
  • an understanding of historical and cultural contributions to science as well as contemporary science issues and activities and an understanding of the diversity of careers related to science
  • a solid foundation of knowledge of the biological, chemical, physical, Earth and space sciences, including being able to select and integrate the scientific knowledge and methods needed to explain and predict phenomena, to apply that understanding to new situations and events, and to appreciate the dynamic nature of science knowledge.

* Technologies

About the Technologies

In the Victorian Curriculum F–10, the Technologies includes Design and Technology and Digital Technologies.

The Technologies provide a framework for students to learn how to use technologies to create innovative solutions that meet current and future needs. Students are encouraged to make decisions about the development and use of technologies, considering the impacts of technological change and how technologies may contribute to a sustainable future. The curriculum provides practical opportunities for students to be users, designers and producers of new technologies.

In Design and Technologies, students use design thinking and technologies to generate and produce designed solutions. In Digital Technologies, students use computational thinking and information systems to analyse, design and develop digital solutions.


Eltham North is dedicated to build upon its strong community relationships, positive student achievements and seeking out new knowledge to further support the thinking skills and creativity of its learning community.  In partnership with our community, Eltham North will continually strive to provide our students the means and motivation to excel and lead us into an exciting future.